Dog-friendly Hikes in Los Angeles
Los Angeles has lots of trails that allow dogs. Need proof? On this page you’ll find a collection of over 125 dog-friendly hikes around Los Angeles.
As a general rule, national forests and national recreation areas are dog-friendly, opening up plenty of trails in Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area and Angeles National Forest (which includes San Gabriel Mountains National Recreation Area). California State Parks do not usually allow dogs on trails, but city and county parks do. You can hike with your dog in many places around Los Angeles.
What are the most dog-friendly hikes in Los Angeles?
On the bulk of trails where dogs are allowed, they expected to be on leashes. Los Angeles has a few exceptions. You’re probably familiar with LA’s most famous dog-friendly park, Runyon Canyon Park, which has off-leash areas where dogs can run free. Fewer Los Angeles residents are aware that dogs are also allowed to be off leash in Westridge-Canyonback Wilderness Park (under direct supervision of course).
Off-leash Hikes in Los Angeles
- Runyon Canyon – Hike up to 3.25 miles through on and off-leash areas, getting a workout and views over Hollywood.
- Westridge Trail to San Vicente Mountain – Hike part or all of a 7.4-mile round trip hike up a scenic ridge in Brentwood that leads to a summit park built at an old Nike Missile site.
- Upper Canyonback Trail – Hike 3 miles round trip from Mulholland Drive down another ridge near San Vicente Mountain.
Discover more dog-friendly hikes on the lists below, separated into LA’s main mountain ranges and hiking areas.
- Santa Monica Mountains
- San Gabriel Mountains
- Palos Verdes Peninsula
- Verdugo Mountains
- Elsewhere in Los Angeles County
Another way to find dog-friendly hikes near you is to search for trails that allow dogs in a particular part of Los Angeles (or elsewhere) by using the Hike Finder Map. Uncheck the box next to “Doesn’t Allow Dogs” to only view trails that are dog-friendly.
Warning: Rattlesnakes are prevalent around Los Angeles, especially during spring months, so be careful hiking with your dog.
Dog Friendly Hikes in Los Angeles
These dog-friendly hikes are separated by region and listed alphabetically to make it easy for you to get outdoors with your dog. Enjoy!
Dog-Friendly Trails in the Santa Monica Mountains
This one-mile hike reaches a relaxing garden on the east side of Griffith Park that is a pleasant retreat for hikers.
|Angel Vista via Rosewood Trail|
This 4-mile round trip hike is the most direct route to Angel Vista, a panoramic viewpoint in the Santa Monica Mountains overlooking the Conejo Valley.
|Angel Vista via West Los Robles Trail|
This 7.6-mile round trip hike climbs 800 feet to an overlook on the north side of the Santa Monica Mountains above Thousand Oaks.
|Anza Loop Trail|
This 3.8 to 4.5-mile hike follows a historic route through rolling hills in Calabasas south of the 101 Freeway.
This 2.05-mile loop winds around the upper reaches of a canyon carved by the East Fork of Arroyo Sequit and has grand views of the Santa Monica Mountains.
This 2.75 to 3.9-mile hike in Griffith Park climbs 500 feet to the easternmost summit in the Santa Monica Mountains.
This hive-shaped point on the east side of Griffith Park is reached via a 1.7 to 4-mile round trip hike.
This short easy hike visits a man-made cave recognizable as the Batcave from the 1960s Batman TV series and hundreds of other locations on TV and film.
This 1.6-mile round trip hike climbs to the Wisdom Tree perched at the west end of Griffith Park.
|Caballero Canyon Trail|
This 3.4-mile round trip hike ascends a canyon on the north side of the Santa Monica Mountains with views over the San Fernando Valley.
This 3-mile hike on Burbank Peak Trail and Aileen Getty Ridge Trail ascends to Cahuenga Peak and the adjacent Mount Lee, home of the Hollywood Sign.
|Calabasas Peak from Old Topanga Canyon Road|
This 4.2-mile hike on Calabasas Peak Motorway approaches Calabasas Peak from the northeast, providing big views over Topanga and other parts of the Santa Monica Mountains.
|Calabasas Peak from Stunt Road|
This 3.6-mile hike on Calabasas Peak Motorway approaches Calabasas Peak from the south, ascending through sandstone formations to panoramic views of the Santa Monica Mountains and San Fernando Valley.
|Calabasas Peak via Calabasas – Cold Creek Trail|
This 4.5-mile round trip hike starts up a scenic single track formerly know as the Secret Trail and ascends 750 feet to the summit of Calabasas Peak.
This hike to a long flight of stairs off Anza Loop Trail is 1.4 miles round trip (add 0.2 miles for each extra trip up and down the steps).
|Castro Crest from Latigo Canyon Road|
This 3.8-mile hike crosses a green canyon and climbs to a scenic saddle below Castro Peak.
|Cedar Grove & Vista View Point Loop|
This 2.3-mile loop on the southeast side of Griffith Park follows paved and unpaved trails to two park attractions, a quiet grove with a picnic area and a helipad with panoramic views.
|Charmlee Wilderness Park|
This 3.25-mile loop is one of several possible hikes in this bluff-top park with ocean views over Malibu.
This 2.5-mile loop offers ocean and canyon views from a unspoiled section of the Santa Monica Mountains in Malibu.
|Corbin Canyon Park|
This 2.05-mile hike offers an easy stroll along the bottom of a canyon on the north side of the Santa Monica Mountains near Tarzana and Woodland Hills.
|Dixie Canyon Park|
This 0.55-mile hike forms a partial loop in a small wooded canyon on the Sherman Oaks side of the Santa Monica Mountains.
This 4-mile out and back visits a 200-foot waterfall that is split into two tiers. The upper tier is 150 feet tall and stunning after a rainstorm (but the trail is steep and may be difficult for small dogs).
This relaxing half-mile hike goes through a tropical garden in the lushest little canyon in Griffith Park. Explore farther on a 1.75-mile hike in Western Canyon or venture up to the Griffith Observatory to see more of the park.
|Franklin Canyon Lake Loop & Chaparral Trail|
This 2.5-mile hike loops around Franklin Canyon Lake and ascends Chaparral Trail (optionally) for an overview of Franklin Canyon.
|Fryman Canyon Loop|
This 3-mile loop follows Betty B. Dearing Trail through Wilacre Park and Coldwater Canyon Park around Fryman Canyon in the Studio City side of the Hollywood Hills.
|Getty View Park|
This 3-mile out and back hike crosses East Sepulveda Fire Road (Casiano Fire Road) on a ridge east of the 405 Freeway that offers light traffic and plentiful views of the Getty Museum and Santa Monica Bay.
This hike is around three miles long and visits a less known summit on the southeast side of Griffith Park with views that deserve more attention.
|Glendale Peak – Mount Hollywood Loop|
This 4.15-mile hike tops two summits in Griffith Park that both have awesome views.
|Griffith Observatory via West Observatory Trail|
This 2.1-mile hike ascends from Western Canyon up ridges to Griffith Observatory, getting sweeping views over Los Angeles and Griffith Park along the way.
This 3-mile out and back visits a remote grotto in the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area. Dogs are permitted along the trail, but not allowed over the last 1/8 mile through the grotto itself.
This pair of short loops explore Franklin Canyon Park and ridges in the Santa Monica Mountains above Beverly Hills.
|Hollywood Sign – Hollywood Reservoir Loop|
This 5.4-mile loop combines trails and streets to visit the Hollywood Sign on Mount Lee, neighboring Cahuenga Peak and Burbank Peak, and Lake Hollywood Reservoir.
|Lower Canyonback Trail|
This 4.2 mile hike ascends Canyonback Ridge from Kenter Ave. in Brentwood to the Mountain Gate Country Club Estates.
|Mandeville Canyon to San Vicente Mountain Loop|
This 5-mile hike incorporating a few trails, taking a DWP road up to Westridge to visit San Vicente Mountain, before crossing Mulholland Drive and Canyonback Ridge to return to Mandeville Canyon via Hollyhock Fire Road.
|Mount Chapel, Mount Bell, and Mount Hollywood|
This 5.7-mile loop tops three prominent summits on a panoramic tour of Griffith Park.
This 1,625-foot peak is a star of Griffith Park with panoramic views that can be reached from Griffith Observatory on a steep 1.4-mile hike or a scenic 2.65-mile trek and from lower in the park in Western Canyon for a hike of around 4.2 miles.
|Mount Lee and the Hollywood Sign via Brush Canyon Trail|
This 6.4-mile hike crosses Griffith Park from Canyon Drive to the top of Mount Lee directly behind the landmark Hollywood Sign.
|Mount Lee and the Hollywood Sign via Hollyridge Trail|
This 3.5-mile hike ascends 750 feet to reach the summit of Mount Lee behind the Hollywood Sign.
|Mount Lee and the Hollywood Sign via Innsdale Drive|
This 4.6-mile round trip hike combines trails and streets to deliver some of the very best views of the Hollywood Sign on the way to the summit of Mount Lee above the sign.
|Oak Creek Canyon Trail|
This 0.8-mile loop starts with an all-access nature trail with signs in English and Braille before transitioning to a less developed dirt single track, looping through chaparral and oak woodlands in Los Robles Open Space.
|Old Zoo Picnic Area|
This half-mile hike explores the abandoned exhibits and animal cages in the ruins of the old LA Zoo in Griffith Park.
This segment of the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area includes Western Town, an outdoor set cast as frontier towns in TV and film since the 1950s. There are also several miles of hiking trails to explore.
|Red Rock Canyon|
The trails in the beautifully sculpted Red Rock Canyon are 2.5 and 5.2 miles in length.
|Rocky Oaks Park|
This short and easy hike visits a pond and a scenic overlook in a small parcel of Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area.
Tour Hollywood’s most popular dog park on loops of various lengths, offering good exercise and views over Los Angeles.
|Saddle Peak from Stunt High Trail|
This 7.5-mile hike combines Stunt High Trail and a section of the Backbone Trail to visit the 6th tallest summit in the Santa Monica Mountains.
This 6-mile loop summits the tallest peak in the Santa Monica Mountains.
|San Vicente Mountain from Mulholland Drive|
This 2-mile hike approaches the peak from the east and offers views to the north and south en route to the old Nike Missile site.
This easy and level 2.6-mile out and back hike visits the ruins of a burned down ranch and a small waterfall.
This 8.5-mile round trip hike follows a wide trail up the center of a sycamore-filled canyon.
A prominent lone-standing Live Oak along Sullivan Ridge makes a natural turnaround point and a 7.5 to 8.3 mile round trip hike.
|Summit to Summit Motorway|
This mostly unpaved road along the ridge between the tops of Old Topanga Canyon Road and Topanga Canyon Boulevard provides a 6 to 6.6-mile hike with panoramic views over the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Fernando Valley (with the potential for shorter and longer hikes).
|Summit Valley Edmund D. Edelman Park|
This park offers a relatively easy 1.65-mile loop and a slightly tougher 2-mile loop that ascends to Summit to Summit Motorway and provides loftier views over Summit Valley in Upper Topanga Canyon.
This 2-mile visits the site of an old fire tower that still offers great views of the surrounding mountains.
|Trebek Open Space|
This 2.5-mile hike incorporated Bantam Trail and Castair Trail in a park adjacent to Runyon Canyon.
|Tuna Canyon Park|
This 1.6 to 5.1-mile hike offers spectacular ocean views from a less-visited park between Topanga and Malibu.
|Upper Canyonback Trail|
This 3 mile hike descends Canyonback Ridge from Mulholland Drive to the Mountain Gate Country Club Estates.
|Upper Solstice Canyon|
This 5.5 to 6.5-mile hike travels the Backbone Trail across Upper Solstice Canyon from Corral Canyon Road to Castro Crest, with the option to hike an extra half mile up Newton Road toward Castro Peak.
This 0.6-mile round trip hike visits a unique sandstone cave that you can stand inside and above. The hike can be extended to 1.55 miles round trip to visit a nearby vista point with a panoramic perspective of the Santa Monica Mountains.
This 3-mile hike in Summit Valley Edmund D. Edelman Park travels down a canyon on Viewridge Trail (also known Santa Maria Canyon Trail) to Summer Hill Ranch Road where there are sweeping views over Topanga and the Santa Monica Mountains from Canyon Overlook.
|Westridge Trail to San Vicente Mountain|
This 7.4-mile hike travels a scenic ridge between a Brentwood neighborhood and a summit that was once used as a Nike Missile site.
|Winnetka Ridge Trail|
This 1.5-mile hike ventures up a ridge into the Santa Monica Mountains from the end of Winnetka Avenue in Woodland Hills.
|Zuma Canyon Trail|
This 2.8-mile hike leaves a coastal Malibu neighborhood to explore rustic Zuma Canyon.
|Zuma Canyon Ocean View Trail – Canyon View Trail Loop|
This 3-mile loop demands more effort than the Zuma Canyon Trail and provides great ocean and canyon views.
|Zuma Ridge Trail|
This wide dirt service road which weaves northwest up the back of the ridge west of Zuma Canyon offering access to several trails in the area.
Dog-Friendly Trails in the San Gabriel Mountains
| Baldy Bowl – Ski Hut|
The Baldy Bowl – Ski Hut Trail offers a steep but scenic ascent up the south side of Mt. Baldy, crossing 4.5 miles and 3900 feet to the summit.
To hike the scenic Devil’s Backbone to Mt. Baldy, you must pass through Baldy Notch. You can hike to the notch, or take a ski lift.
|Bridge to Nowhere|
This adventurous 10-mile round trip hike reaches an abandoned and out-of-place bridge with a unique history.
|Castle Canyon Trail to Inspiration Point (and beyond)|
This 2-mile long trail ascends from the ruins on Echo Mountain to a historic viewpoint that still offers hike-worthy panoramas. Form a loop back to Echo Mountain to visit Mount Lowe Trail Camp, Cape of Good Hope, and other landmarks on Mount Lowe Railway.
|Colby Canyon Trail to Josephine Peak|
This 8.7-mile hike ascends an infrequently visited canyon off Angeles Crest Highway up to a saddle below Strawberry Peak and then takes a wide dirt road up to a summit in the front range of the San Gabriel Mountains with 360-degree over Big Tujunga Canyon and cities to the south.
| Cooper Canyon Falls|
This 3-mile hike leaves from Buckhorn Campground and visits a short waterfall in an enchanting glen of tall pines.
| Crystal Lake|
This 1 1/3-mile round trip hike visits the only naturally occurring lake in the San Gabriel Mountains.
This 6-mile hike from Millard Campground leads past Millard Falls to an old gold mine.
| Devil’s Backbone|
This 3.2-mile ridge-top trail between Baldy Notch and the summit of Mt. Baldy offers incredible views of the San Gabriel Mountains.
|Eaton Canyon Falls|
This 3-mile hike visits a 40-footer.
|Echo Mountain via Sam Merrill Trail|
This 5.8-mile hike visits a historic railway and ruins from a century old resort overlooking Pasadena.
This 2/3 of a mile lollipop loop in Placerita Canyon Natural Area will introduce you to numerous local plants along with views of Placerita Canyon.
|Fish Canyon Falls|
This 4.8-mile round trip hike leaves from an active rock quarry and progresses up a beautiful canyon to a mesmerizing multi-tiered waterfall (dogs are allowed on weekends only).
|Gould Mesa Trail Camp via Gabrielino Trail|
This 5.1-mile round trip hike follows Gabrielino Trail up a canyon along the Arroyo Seco to a trail camp just inside Angeles National Forest.
|Gould Mesa Trail Camp via Gould Mesa Road|
This road descends 1.15 miles to a junction with Gabrielino Trail near Gould Mesa Trail Camp in Angeles National Forest, presenting a steep 2.4-mile round trip route to the campground with 525 feet of elevation change.
|Heaton Flats Trail|
This hike of 3.6 to 6 miles (or more) starts from the same trailhead as the hike to the Bridge to Nowhere and climbs toward Iron Mountain and panoramic views.
|Henninger Flats via Mount Wilson Toll Road|
This 6-mile round trip hike ascends 1,325 feet to a trail camp, tree nursery, lookout tower, and visitor center on a landing in the San Gabriel Mountains operated by the Los Angeles County Fire Department. The hike can easily be extended to 8.7 miles by exploring a loop above Henninger Flats.
This 2.5-mile heads down canyon away from Sturtevant Falls toward a 30-foot waterfall. The lush canyon and the babbling creek are quite calming.
This 4.25-mile hike follows Lower Winter Creek Trail through a beautiful wooded canyon to a backcountry campground with fourteen first-come first-serve sites.
|Icehouse Canyon Trail to Icehouse Saddle|
This 7.2-mile hike climbs 2,600 feet through a picturesque canyon to a saddle with panoramic views and extended hiking opportunities.
|Inspiration Point & Mount Lowe Trail Camp|
This 7.25-mile round trip hike descends Mount Lowe Road into the San Gabriel Mountains to a historic scenic overlook and a trail camp built on interesting ruins.
|Los Pinetos Waterfall|
This 5.33-mile round trip hike in Placerita Canyon Natural Area follows Canyon Trail to the ruins of Walker Ranch and Waterfall Trail to an elusive falls in a sylvan canyon.
| Lower Zion Trail|
The trail from Hoegees Camp up Mt. Zion is 1.5 miles long.
This one mile hike visits a 50-foot waterfall up one of the most scenic canyons in the range.
This 1.6-mile to 3-mile hike in Monrovia Canyon Park follows an enchanting canyon up to the base of the 30-foot waterfall.
This 8.25-mile round trip hike ascends 2,834 feet to one of the tallest summits in the San Gabriel Mountains and a monument to Lord Baden-Powell, a BSA icon and the founder of the Scout Movement.
|Mount Baldy Loop|
This 11.3-mile hike incorporates the Devil’s Backbone and the Baldy Bowl – Ski Hit Trail into one see-all loop.
This 6,215-foot summit can be reach from two trailheads for a 1.33 to 6.25-mile hike gaining between 575 and 1,000 feet.
|Mount Lowe Road & Sunset Ridge Trail to Cape of Good Hope|
This pair of trails can be combined for a 5.2-mile round trip hike to a historic viewpoint called Cape of Good Hope. Follow the old route of Mount Lowe Railway to the ruins on Echo Mountain to extend the hike by two miles round trip or bring the distance up to 11.85 miles by visiting Echo Mountain, Inspiration Point, Mount Lowe Trail Camp, and other landmarks.
The 5.5 to 6 miler can be completed as an out and back hike or a loop, traveling through a pine forest to a round summit. Add six miles to the hike by dropping across a saddle and climbing to the summit of Twin Peaks.
|Rubio Canyon Trail|
This 1.3-mile round trip hike ventures into a rustic canyon to a double waterfall.
|San Antonio Falls|
This 1.2-mile hike visits a multi-tier waterfall along the trail to Mt. Baldy.
|San Gabriel Peak from Mount Disappointment Fire Road|
This 6,161 foot peak is reachable via a 4-mile round trip trail from Mt. Disappointment Fire Road.
|San Gabriel Peak from Mount Lowe Road|
This 6,161 foot peak is also reachable via a 3.2-mile round-trip trail from Eaton Saddle.
|Santa Anita Canyon Loop|
This 9.5-mile loop visits two peaceful creeks in sylvan canyons, passing a 60-foot waterfall and plenty of beautiful wilderness.
This 7-mile hike ascends 1,800 feet to a 5,111 foot summit with panoramic views over the San Gabriel Mountains.
|Spruce Grove Camp|
This 8-mile in-and-out or 9.5-mile loop takes hikers beyond Sturtevant Falls to a backcountry campground with seven first-come first-serve sites.
This 9 to 11-mile hike goes around Strawberry Peak to a remote and scenic flat below a massive cliff on the north side of the mountain, offering views of Big Tujunga Canyon and surrounding peaks along the way.
This 7.5-mile hike to the highest summit in the front range of the San Gabriel Mountains starts out gradual and becomes steep, presenting grand views of surrounding mountains and the cities below.
This 3.25-mile hike visits a 60-foot waterfall and a lush cottage-lined canyon.
This 4.5-mile hike starts out above and finishes below a 50-foot tall waterfall.
|Trail Canyon Falls|
This 4-mile hike ascends a mountain-framed canyon to a 30-foot beauty on the east side of the San Gabriel Mountains.
|Twin Peaks & Mount Waterman|
This 11.65-mile hike extends a loop over Mount Waterman by dropping across a saddle and ascending Twin Peaks, a panoramic summit in the center of the San Gabriel Mountains.
|Upper Winter Creek Trail|
This 2.75-mile long trail can be used to extend Santa Anita Canyon Loop or create a 4.85-mile loop with Lower Winter Creek Trail.
|Upper Zion Trail|
The trail from Spruce Grove Camp up Mt. Zion is 1.5 miles long.
This 3.8 or 4.4-mile hike ascends from Charlton Flats Picnic Area to Vetter Mountain, where there are exceptional 360-degree view from the site of an old fire lookout tower.
|Winston Ridge and Winston Peak|
This 4.85-mile partial loop bags a summit and a scenic ridge in the high San Gabriel Mountains.
Dog-Friendly Trails on the Palos Verdes Peninsula
|Lunada Canyon Trail|
This short trail explores an overgrown canyon between two residential ridges inland of Lunada Bay.
|Portuguese Bend Reserve|
This 5.15-mile double loop explores the scenic coastal hillsides and canyons in Portuguese Bend Reserve on the Palos Verdes Peninsula and can easily be shortened to 3 miles round trip by omitting the lower loop.
This level family-friendly 1.5-mile hike explores scenic coastal bluffs north of the historic Vicente Point Lighthouse.
|White Point Nature Preserve|
This 1 to 2.5-mile hike explores an open space containing a military bunker built to defend the west coast during World War II.
Dog-Friendly Trails in the Verdugo Mountains
|Beaudry Motorway Loop to Tongva Peak|
This 6.15-mile loop climbs 1,475 feet to the summit of Tongva Peak on the east end of the Verdugo Mountains.
|Hostetter Fire Road to Verdugo Mountain|
This 7.5-mile round-trip ride up La Tuna Canyon reaches the highest summit in the Verdugo Mountains, a small mountain range north of Burbank.
|La Tuna Canyon Trail|
This 4.5-mile round trip hike ascends a ridge and a pair of canyons in La Tuna Canyon Park on the northwest side of the Verdugo Mountains.
|Las Flores Motorway to Mount Thom|
This 5.3-mile hike follows a wide dirt road to the summit of Mount Thom, offering panoramic views from the southeast end of the Verdugo Mountains.
|Old Youth Camp Loop in Stough Canyon|
This 2.6-mile loop passes the ruins of an abandoned camp in the Verdugo Mountains with views across the San Fernando Valley.
This 6.1 to 6.6-mile hike (or more) ascends an abandoned fire road in the Verdugo Mountains with expansive views that include the skyline of downtown Los Angeles.
|Vital Link Trail|
This hike of 3 miles round trip or more ascends 1,275 feet (or more) up a ridge on the side of the Verdugo Mountains for a steep hike with satisfying views.
Dog-Friendly Trails Elsewhere in Los Angeles
|Cave of Munits and Castle Peak|
This action-packed 2.1-mile loop has two great attractions, crossing an impressive cave to climb to a rocky peak with views over the San Fernando Valley.
|China Flat & Simi Peak|
This 5.45 to 6.2-mile hike ventures up rugged ridges to a peaceful oak savanna and a trail to the highest point in the Simi Hills, sporting 360-degree views of surrounding mountain ranges.
This 2.5-mile hike delivers views over Los Angeles from Kenneth Hahn State Recreation Area in the Baldwin Hills.
|Fish Canyon Narrows|
This hike of ten miles or more explores an enchanting narrow canyon on the east side of the Angeles National Forest in the Sierra Pelona Mountains north of Santa Clarita.
| Lizard Rock|
To add extra mileage and views to a visit to Paradise Falls in Thousand Oaks, consider placing Lizard Rock on your itinerary.
This easy hike of up to 4.7 miles round trip follows the Westchester Bluffs west below the campus of Loyola Marymount University.
This 40-foot waterfall is located within Wildwood Park in Thousand Oaks and is reachable via several trails, including a 2.55-mile loop.
This 4.75-mile hike rises to a 2,715-foot summit in Rocky Peak Park within the Santa Susana Mountains between Chatsworth and Simi Valley.
This 1-mile round trip hike follows a paved trail to the top of a small, round hill in Thousand Oaks with views across the Conejo Valley into the surrounding mountains.
|Towsley View Loop Trail|
This 5.4-mile loop explores two canyons and scenic ridges in the Santa Susana Mountains, passing the narrows of Towsley Gorge in Towsley Canyon.
|Vasquez Rocks Natural Area Park|
This 3.4 to 5.9-mile loop offers a dose of desert hiking close to Los Angeles, exploring striking sandstone formations that are frequently used as movie backdrops.